FDA : Food and Drug Administration (American Federal Agency for food and drug products)
From the years 1930 the FDA Agency has this name while its origin dates from the years 1906 with the “Pure Food and Drugs Act” (an act to reassure public opinion against the dangers of food and drugs).
The FDA is an agency of the United States that regulates the placing on the market of medicinal products and food.
“The “Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act” requires that any product containing new substances be tested by companies before being submitted to the review of the FDA who will decide or not its placing on the market. The Agency does not itself toxicological studies. It examines the data provided by the applicants.” 
The FDA website : www.FDA.gov
Main sources : Content submitted to the CC-BY-SA license 3.0. Source : Article Food and Drug Administration from Wikipedia in french (authors)